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HAZOP en SIL, hoe zat dat ook weer?Published: 28 October 2016
Iedereen die met brandbare of explosieve substanties te maken heeft, op locatie of tijdens ontwerp, krijgt hier vroeger of later mee te maken. Maar niet bij iedereen liggen deze onderwerpen even vers in het geheugen, dus een opfrissertje is weleens nodig. Als je IEC 61511 nu niet direct bij de hand hebt, dan heeft Automatie | PMA ons een grote dienst bewezen door een samenvatting zonder jargon te publiceren.
En hoe bereken je ‘betrouwbaarheid’ (de ‘SIL-waarde’)?
Dat is het onderwerp van deel 2
Catalyst to convert CO2 into ethanolPublished: 26 October 2016
Scientists from Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a catalyst that is able to convert CO2 into ethanol. Using some electricity the CO2 is catalytically converted to ethanol. The catalyst is made of copper and carbon particles. Normally a chain of reactions would be needed, but this catalyst is rather selective and has a high conversion.
Further development is needed, but this technology could be used to convert excess energy into ethanol that could be utilized later. The catalyst basically inverses the combustion process and has a yield of 63% ethanol. The key point why the catalyst works, is the arrangement and the structure of the catalytically active sites.
Fragrant energyPublished: 20 October 2016
Energy is a hot topic, especially the renewable variety; cleaning up after a cow is not, even as our farmers struggle with a large excess of cow manure (that is no BS). A new government initiative therefore comes under the heading: €150 million subsidy for renewable energy.
Our Ministry of Economic Affairs has made available this amount to build some 200 manure digesters. For the production of biogas of course, not to get rid of the manure, for that is the farmers’ problem. What to do with the digestate is not mentioned. Maybe that is a subject for another subsidy.
Explosion at BASFPublished: 18 October 2016
The joint venture with Avantium was not the only reason for BASF to be in the news. An explosion in a supply line between a harbor and a tank depot left 2 people dead and 20 injured of which 6 severely. The cause has not yet been established, but terrorism has been excluded. A view from the air can be found here.
FDCA and PEF – the next step towards mass productionPublished: 17 October 2016
In March we reported the signing of a letter of intent for the formation of a joint venture between Avantium and BASF for the production and marketing of furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), as well as marketing of polyethylenefuranoate (PEF) (See our news archive: 21 March).
This joint venture has now come off the ground under the name Synvina, which will have its headquarters in Amsterdam, while the intended production site will be at BASF’s Verbund site in Antwerp. It is planned to invest “a mid-three-digit million euro sum” (translation: around half a billion) to build a plant with a capacity of up to 50,000 metric tons of FDCA per year. Stoechiometrically you need 1.15 ton of sugar per ton of FDCA.
For an explanation of the chemistry involved click here.